Fragile states and post-crisis contexts


Social protection plays a fundamental role in fragile states where the prevalence of civil wars, humanitarian crisis or violence, make people extremely vulnerable and more exposed to economic risks. During the time of turmoil, social protection ensure in these contexts livelihoods and some sort of income security and access to health care. However, wars and humanitarian crisis carry with them also more problematic elements: communities and families end up being brutally separated and become marginalized. Hence, it becomes necessary that social protection interventions are adapted also to respond to needs of people in a post-conflict context.

Photo credit: “Displaced family in the settlement Metekhi, Shida Kartli region” by United Nations Development Programme in Europe and CIS (CCBY 2.0 via Flickr).


Building Shock-Responsive National Social Protection Systems in the Middle East and North Africa Region

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is confronted by significant challenges resulting from multiple shocks and complex emergencies: countries in the region face various risks in terms of natural disasters, including earthquakes, floods and drought; violent conflicts, such as in Syria, pose unprecedented challenges related to the scale of human displacement; and the […]

The Humanitarian Metadata Problem: “Doing no harm” in the digital era

New technologies continue to present great risks and opportunities for humanitarian action. To ensure that their use does not result in any harm, humanitarian organisations must develop and implement appropriate data protection standards, including robust risk assessments. However, this requires a good understanding of what these technologies are, what risks are associated with their use, […]

The Role of Cash Transfers in Social Protection, Humanitarian Response and Shock- Responsive Social Protection

Cash transfers have expanded rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) around the world in the past decade. The contexts in which they are implemented have also diversified; while cash transfers were mostly adopted initially as central elements of social protection systems, they have become increasingly popular as a core component of humanitarian response. They […]

Social Protection and Humanitarian Response: What is the Scope for Integration?

Given the rise in humanitarian emergencies triggered by climate-related risks and conflict, often in contexts of chronic poverty and vulnerability, the international community is calling for the better integration of short-term humanitarian assistance and longer-term development interventions. In this context, social protection is increasingly portrayed as a policy tool that can address chronic, as well […]

Social Protection and Resilience: supporting livelihoods in protracted crises and in fragile and humanitarian contexts

The paper discusses the role social protection can play in saving livelihoods while also enhancing the capacity of households to respond, cope and withstand threats and crises. It focuses on social protection’s role in protracted crises and fragile and humanitarian contexts, as well as discusses the importance of shock-response systems, even in stable contexts.

Rethinking Transitions: economic and social justice in societies emerging from conflict

Transitions bring the opportunity to rewrite the social contract between state and society, to restructure institutional architecture and tackle the political, social and economic deficits that contribute to social exclusion and deprivation. In transitions, economic and social rights have the potential to translate people’s social justice claims into normative and enforceable entitlements through constitutional processes […]

The Role of Social Protection Programmes in Supporting Education in Conflict-Affected Situations

This background paper examines the role of social protection programmes in supporting education in conflict-affected contexts. Drawing on existing literature, the paper looks at the impact, design and implementation issues of social protection programme experience in conflict, protracted crisis and post-conflict contexts, including in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Sierra Leone, Somalia, Nepal, […]

Social Protection in Protracted Crises, Humanitarian and Fragile Contexts

FAO recognizes that scaling-up cash-based programming and risk-informed and shock-responsive social protection systems is a strategic priority in particular to improve food security and nutrition and protect households’ assets as well as increase income of the most vulnerable population. Over the past 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the number of countries […]

Responding to a crisis: The design and delivery of social protection

This working paper identifies the social protection policy design and implementation details that enable timely and adequate shock response. It also examines developments in securing adequate social protection financing and crisis preparedness. [LINK]

Social Protection in Fragile States: Lessons learned

How can social protection best be achieved in situations of fragility? This paper argues that while the objectives for social protection in fragile states are essentially the same as in development contexts, social protection instruments, financing and delivery need to be adapted. In order to scale up social protection in fragile settings, it is important […]

Social Protection and Human Rights