Despite being one of the youngest and poorest countries of the region, Timor-Leste has offered a universal social pension to its senior citizens and persons with disabilities since 2008. Almost all persons above 60 years and about one in five persons with disabilities participate in the scheme. The pensions...Read More
Social Protection and Climate Change: How can social protection address regular climate-related risks in the Sahel?
The effects of climate change are increasingly apparent in many Sahel countries. Relief efforts during crises and in response to everyday deprivation have been largely led by outside actors. However, many Sahel countries have now adopted national strategies for social protection, providing new opportunities for them to establish basic...Read More
Social Protection and Climate Change: How did the Philippines combine emergency relief with lasting protection after Haiyan?
In the wake of Typhoon Haiyan, the Philippines’ Integrated Livelihood and Emergency Employment Program (DILEEP) provided emergency employment opportunities to affected populations, and affiliated participants to several social insurance schemes. Nearly 80,000 programme participants received immediate relief after the typhoon struck in 2013, and were enrolled in the national...Read More
Social Protection and Climate Change: How are rural workers and residents in China faring with conservation efforts?
In China, there are big efforts to combat deforestation, with logging and other restrictions placed on large swaths of land. Nearly a million workers in state-owned forest enterprises lost their jobs, but got help with job training and placement services. Other rural residents received cash to perform conservation activities....Read More
Social Protection and Climate Change: Can Brazil pursue twin social and environmental objectives together?
Brazil’s invaluable rainforests have dwindled in recent decades, as agriculture and other development have moved in. Development opportunities are crucial for many rural populations who continue to live in poverty. Now, the Government is attempting to address poverty and threats to the environment together through a new social protection...Read More
Migrant access to social protection under Bilateral Labour Agreements: A review of 120 countries and nine bilateral arrangements (ESS Working Paper No. 57)
This working paper: (i) examines migrants access to social protection under Bilateral Labour Agreements (BLAs) with a view to providing policy makers with guidelines for extending social protection to migrants and designing better migration policies; (ii) presents the results of a mapping of bilateral and multilateral social security agreements...Read More
Fiscal Space for Social Protection and the SDGs: Options to Expand Social Investments in 187 Countries (ESS Working Paper No. 48)
The argument that spending on social protection is unaffordable is becoming less common in international development forums. Finding fiscal space for critical economic and social investments is necessary for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), for sustained human development of children and women, and for realizing human rights, particularly...Read More
This compendium contains a selection of the most relevant international instruments that establish the human right to social security and provide guidance for comprehensive social security systems at national level. These include the standards and conclusions adopted by the International Labour Organization (hereinafter referred to as ILO) in the...Read More
The South African social protection system is one of the most comprehensive within the region. Its statutory and effective coverage rates are above the region’s average and comparable or even beyond those of other BRICS countries. The comprehensive nature of the system lies in contributory and non-contributory cash and...Read More
The adoption of the 1988 constitution marked a landmark in the history of the Brazilian social security system by introducing a universal social security model grounded in citizenship rights. The Constitution sets out the State’s responsibility in organizing and legislating social security. This should be done according to principles...Read More
Exclusion by Design: an assessment of the effectiveness of the proxy means test poverty targeting mechanism (ESS Working Paper No. 56)
This paper assesses the effectiveness of the proxy means test (PMT) targeting methodology. It brings together international evidence to show that it is both inaccurate and arbitrary. The mechanism suffers from high in-built design errors, additional errors introduced during implementation, and infrequent surveys, meaning that it cannot respond to...Read More
Azerbaijan has ratified all major UN treaties on human rights, including the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women, (CEDAW), its Optional Protocol, and the core ILO Conventions in the area of non-discrimination, maternity protection and work-family reconciliation (ILO Conventions 100, 111, 183 and 156)....Read More
Extending Social Security to the Informal Economy – Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Moldova
Every member of society has the right to social security. Ensuring adequate social security for all is one of the key goals of the ILO’s Decent Work agenda. Most European countries have already established comprehensive social security systems. The existing systems typically operate in the forms of contributory social...Read More
Long-term care of the elderly is an imminent policy issue for countries facing profound demographic transformations due to ageing. Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries face complex challenges in securing accessible, adequate and sustainable long-term care. While CEE countries anticipate a growing number of elderly persons in need of...Read More
There is a growing international consensus about the importance of social protection for children. Every child has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, the right to benefit from social security including social insurance, the right to an adequate standard of living, and the right to education....Read More
This guide is a unique resource package that aims to provide the necessary knowledge and expertise for conducting assessment based national dialogue (ABND) exercises, which are the first steps towards the implementation of nationally defined social protection floors. Designed by practitioners for practitioners, it is based on real country...Read More
Social Contract and the Future of Work: Inequality, income security, labour relations and social dialogue
The world of work is undergoing major changes that will continue, and potentially intensify, in the future. To better understand and in order to respond effectively to these new challenges, the ILO has launched a Future of Work initiative and proposed four centenary conversations for debates in the years...Read More
This report has been prepared in the context of the Ghana Social Opportunities Project that seeks to support Ghana to rationalize its social protection expenditure. The Report analyses expenditure in terms of its sustainability, robustness, efficiency and effectiveness in preventing or reducing poverty, social exclusion and ill health. It...Read More
With this Resource Guide, the ILO would like to enhance knowledge and understanding of all stakeholders of the situation of Roma in the labour market in terms of discrimination, marginalization, and lack of access to resources and services. The Resource Guide brings together relevant international instruments and experiences which...Read More
The study explores the possible strategies to expand social protection to small scale farmers as well as the requirements for SHI scheme design adjustments to fit the income patterns and employment arrangements which prevail in the sector. The report also offers a case study on a possible linkage between...Read More