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Towards Gender Equality through Sanitation Access

Resources - Author: Isha Ray, Kara Nelson, Zachary Burt / Year: 2016

This discussion paper reviews the extensive literature on sanitation to show that inadequate access to this basic service prevents the realization of a range of human rights and of gender equality. We recognize that “dignity” is a highly culture- and gender-specific term; we therefore argue that sanitation for all—sanitation...

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Sanitation Law and Policy in India

Resources - Author: Lovleen Bhullar, Philippe Cullet /

Most comprehensive work on sanitation in India. Provides an overview of the existing legal as well as policy instruments related to sanitation in India. Fills the existing gap, both in knowledge and policy instruments, defining sanitation in India. Highlights the importance, complexity, and fragmented nature of the legal and...

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Gender Disparities in Water, Sanitation and Global Health

Resources - Author: Archana Patkar, Bethany A. Caruso, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Kelly K. Baker, Varadan Sevilimedu / Year: 2015

Celebrating World Water Day, The Lancet Editors1 highlighted the gains made towards Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7c, “to halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation”, and noted UN-Water’s call for sustainable water management in view of future increases...

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Menstrual Hygiene Practices, WASH Access and the Risk of Urogenital Infection in Women from Odisha, India

Resources - Author: Ambarish Dutta, Arati Nayak, Belen Torondel, Bhabani Sankar Das, Bibiana Bilung, Bijay Panda, Kelly K. Baker, Mary Bara, Padma Das, Pinaki Panigrahi, Pravas Ranjan Mishra, Sandy Cairncross, Sunita Sahoo, Tapoja Swain / Year: 2015

Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices vary worldwide and depend on the individual’s socioeconomic status, personal preferences, local traditions and beliefs, and access to water and sanitation resources. MHM practices can be particularly unhygienic and inconvenient for girls and women in poorer settings. Little is known about whether unhygienic MHM...

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Psychosocial Stress Associated with Sanitation Practices: Experiences of women in a rural community in India

Resources - Author: Ambarish Dutta, Bhabani S. Das, Bijaya K. Padhi, Kelly K. Baker, Matthew C. Freeman, Oliver Cumming, Pinaki Panigrahi, Radhanatha Satpathy / Year: 2015

This study examined sources of psychosocial stress related to the use of toilet facilities or open defecation by women and adolescent girls at home, public places, workplaces and in schools in a rural community in Pune, India. The mixed methods approach included focus group discussions among women, key informant...

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Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Practicing Poor Sanitation in Rural India: A population-based prospective cohort study

Resources - Author: Ambarish Dutta, Bhabani S. Das, Bijaya K. Padhi, Kelly K. Baker, Matthew C. Freeman, Oliver Cumming, Pinaki Panigrahi, Radhanatha Satpathy / Year: 2015

The importance of maternal sanitation behaviour during pregnancy for birth outcomes remains unclear. Poor sanitation practices can promote infection and induce stress during pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). We aimed to assess whether poor sanitation practices were associated with increased risk of APOs such as...

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Sanitation-Related Psychosocial Stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India

Resources - Author: Bethany A. Carusoc, Kristyna R.S. Hullandb, Krushna Chandra Sahooa, Matthew C. Freemand, Pinaki Panigrahie, Robert Dreibelbisf, Rojalin Swaina / Year: 2015

While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women’s unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews...

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No Relief

Resources - Year: 2015

This is a short multi-media piece that highlights the devastating impact of India’s sanitation crisis on women. It was produced in support of a 2014 research study called Sanitation Vulnerability: Women’s stress and struggles for violence-free sanitation....

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Sanitation and Hygiene in South Asia. Leave No One Behind: Voices of women, adolescent girls, elderly, persons with disabilities and sanitation workforce

Resources - Year: 2015

The ground-breaking report highlights the plight of voiceless, underserved groups, and their need for safe and satisfactory sanitation and hygiene. “Leave No One Behind” summarizes the sanitation and hygiene hopes and aspirations of thousands of women and men of different ages and physical ability, across rural and urban areas...

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Mutual Reinforcement of the Human Right to Social Protection and the Human Right to Water and Sanitation

Expert commentaries - Date: 16 October 2015 / Author: Juliet Willetts

The rights to social protection and water and sanitation can and should be mutually reinforcing, particularly if the linkages are made explicit. Such linkages include both consideration of access to water and sanitation in the design of social protection systems, as well as explicit recognition of the human right...

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Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: 2015 Update and MDG Assessment

Resources - Year: 2015

In 2000 the Member States of the United Nations signed the Millennium Declaration, which later gave rise to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Goal 7, to ensure environmental sustainability, included a target that challenged the global community to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to...

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Rights to Water and Sanitation: A Handbook for Activists

Resources - Year: 2010

The purpose of this handbook is to help civil society and those working on water and sanitation issues to adopt a human rights-based approach to advocacy, so that they can improve water and sanitation service regulation and provision at international, national and local levels. Directed primarily at community groups,...

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WaterAid Governance Transparency Fund programme handbooks

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This series of handbooks focuses on the challenges of creating strong community-based organizations, power analysis the role of networks in delivering better governance how to engage successfully with stakeholders and how to improve governance and make it sustainable.   Link to...

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The Rights to Water and Sanitation

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This site explains why water and sanitation as human rights are key to achieving universal access to safe water and sanitation. Also, find out about what progress has been made in getting the rights recognised and what impact the implementation of the rights has made so far. Learn about...

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Joint report of the independent expert on the question of human rights and extreme poverty, Magdalena Sepúlveda Carmona, and the independent expert on the issue of human rights obligations related to access to safe drinking water and sanitation, Catarina de Albuquerque: Mission to Bangladesh (A /HRC/15/55)

Resources - Author: Catarina de Albuquerque, Magdalena Sepúlveda Carmona / Year: 2010

In the report, the independent expert on water and sanitation highlights the problems relating to sanitation, water quality and availability, and menstrual hygiene. The independent expert on extreme poverty focuses on social protection programmes for education, women, older persons, emergency relief and decent work, and points out the challenges...

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Water and sanitation

The right to social security enshrined under Article 9 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights encompasses the right to access and maintain social security or other benefits in order to be able to secure water and sanitation (among other necessary goods) and to realise the rights of...

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